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What is Hydroxysuccinimide?
Hydroxysuccinimide is an ester that helps to stimulate the clearance of blood cell pigments responsible for the dark coloration and inflammation under the eyes.
Benefits Of Hydroxysuccinimide:
The blue and violet undertones are the reason for the appearance of dark circles. These undertones develop due to the accumulation of hemoglobin and its colored degradation products - biliverdin, bilirubin and iron in the dermis and epidermis.
N-hydroxysuccinimide acts like a chelating agent that binds with the iron (one of the compounds present in the accumulation). It naturally solubilizes the iron, thereby reducing the appearance of dark circles. A study was conducted on 22 female volunteers who were given a gel containing 2% N-hydroxysuccinimide to apply for 56 days to the contour of one eye against a placebo on the other eye. The results showed that application of the gel had decreased the red and blue colors of dark circles by 19%.
Side Effects & Toxicity:
A safe ingredient, N-hydroxysuccinimide has no known toxicity in general use and is shown to be non-irritating and suitable for sensitive skin. Its recommended concentration is 2%.
Formulators use N-hydroxysuccinimide with chrysin to improve the efficacy of their products as chrysin stimulates the enzyme (UGT1A1) leading to the clearance of bilirubin (one of the compounds present in the hemoglobin accumulation).